Milk and dairy products
Milk and dairy products are an important source of proteins, calcium and vitamins.They are ideal baby food therefore is this product of great importance.
The production of milk is worldwide concentrating in very few big companies. This increases quality through modern know how destroying, however, the small decentralized factories.
The very big international dairy food producers
|Enterprise||Seat of||Sales Mio|
|the Head||US Dollar|
|2||Kraft (Philip Morris)||USA||8.000|
|3||Dairy Farmers of America||USA||6.900|
|5||Friesland Coberco Dairy Food||NL||5.500|
|7||Snow Brand Milk Products||J||5.000|
|10||Meji Milk Products||J||4.000|
Milk is a natural source of calcium. Unfortunately young people drink less milk and more carbonated drinks increasing a possible undersupply of calcium. The decline in use of dairy products along with the increase of osteosporosis has boosted the fortification of food and beverages with o calcium all over the world . Calcium sources are:
- Calcium carbonater
- Calcium phosphate
- Calcium lactate
- Calcium gluconate
- Bone ash
- Eggshell calcium
But none of these sources have the same high bio availability as milk and their derivates.That is why milk should be carefully protected against pollution and diseases such as BSE.
Bio availability of calcium
One liter skim or full fat milk contains 1.200 mg calcium.About 30% of it is available to humans.
The availability of calcium depends largely of it being soluble.
Mineral water is a good source of calcium being present in soluble form.In dietary supplements the availability of calcium can be differ from case to case.
The bio availability of calcium in vegetables is smaller as from milk.
In milk calcium is linked with other components which avoid reactions as insoluble salts.
- Lactose and citrate of milk help resorption.
- Phytate and oxalate reduce resorption.
- Roughage and fibres do not influence bio availability.
- Even having a low bio availability fruits and vegetables represent an important factor in daily intake.
- A low calcium status causes the organism to absorb better as it does under normal conditions.
- Vitamin D and a normal intake of proteins promote a better bio availability.
- Human male reabsorb more calcium as women do.
- During Pregnancy and nursing calcium is reabsorb more easily.
- As one gets older calcium resorption diminishes.
- Diseases such as Morbus Chron and Colitis Ulcerosa slow down the resorption.
- An undersupply of oestrogen causes low levels of calcium.
Daily intake of calcium :
Adults = 800 mg
Infants =1.200 mg
To keep bones strong magnesium as well as calcium and vitamin D are needed.
The ratio of calcium and magnesium is important.Too much calcium and two little magnesium makes blood more apt to clot, leading to heart attack.
The proper ratio is half as much magnesium as calcium.It is believed that old people get only one-fourth as much magnesium as calcium, specifically if they take calcium supplements.
An intake of 1.200 milligrams of calcium per day demands 600 mg of magnesium
A separate supplement of 200 to 300 mg per day seems to be good.Dr. Seelig insists that the daily intake of magnesium should be about 500 milligrams .
Pollutants in milk and dairy products
Pesticides and aflatoxins in milk have their origin in imported animal feed.
The fat soluble pesticides like polychlorated hydrocarbons can contaminate easily milk, heavy metals are very seldom found in milk because they have low solubility.
All efforts should be made to avoid contamination because milk is used to feed children, dairy products such as cheese or yoghurt are consumed in large scale. Contagious diseases like BSE should therefore be avoided through rigorous epidemiological measures.
Pesticides such as insecticides, fungicides herbicides, hexachlorobenzene ( HCB ) and isomers of hexachloro cyclohexane ( HCH )are used in agriculture or are found on the fields.
Even with low concentration of pesticides in animal feed the milk may be heavily affected because liposoluble pesticides usually store in the body of animals and can be detected in the milk in high level.
Mycotoxines such as aflatoxin B1 may be present in ground peanuts or cotton seeds.The cows changes the aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1.
This is why animal feed should be protected against deterioration. Contaminated or spoiled food should not be given to animals.
Chlorated hydrocarbon such as Polychlorated biphenyl(PCB) were used in the past in transformers, refrigerators, in hydraulic oil and as all round chemicals. Its level in milk has decreased after the use of PCB has been reduced.