- Food

Food Processing Innovations

Beta-glucan in food applications

A preparation of beta-glucan, obtained from spent brewer’s yeast, was evaluated for potential food applications. This material was autolysed and the cell walls that were obtained were homogenized, extracted firstly with alkali, then with acid, and then spray dried.

Fragmentation of the cell walls during homogenization is regarded responsible for higher viscosity by Saowanee Thammakiti and colleagues. The beta-glucan obtained in this way had higher properties as compared with commercial beta-glucan from baker’s yeast.

The authors suggest that beta-glucan obtained from brewer’s yeast can be used in food products as a thickening, water-holding, or oil-binding agent and emulsifying stabilizer.

Read more Hygienemanagement in Food Industry

Beta-glucan as fat replacer in mayonnaise

Application of beta-glucan prepared from spent brewer’s yeast as a fat replacer in mayonnaise was studied by Worrasinchai, and colleagues Fat was partially substituted by beta-glucan at levels of 25, 50, and 75% achieving higher storage stability than full fat mayonnaise with acceptable sensory with beta-glucan not more than 50%. The authors conclude that spent brewer’s yeast beta-glucan may be used as a fat replacer in mayonnaise.

Carotinoids as coulorants in beta-glucan mayonnaise

Rujirat Santipanichwong and Manop Suphantharika studied the application of carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein, as natural colourants in reduced fat mayonnaise with 50% substitution of oil using spent brewer’s yeast beta-glucan as a fat replacer.

Lutein was found to destabilize the emulsion resulting in significant variation of the oil droplet size during storage and a spontaneous reduction of the viscoelastic properties.

Beta-carotene, however, did not change the stability of the emulsion. The authors concluded that the addition of these colourants in the concentration range tested seemed to have no effect on the textural properties of reduced-fat mayonnaise.

Beta-glucans and their effect on the immune system

Leiber, a German producer of yeast products, submitted a request of health claim saying that its beta-glucan of yeast “helps to maintain the body’s defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract”. It is already the second trial presenting new informations to the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

The first request asking for the claimed effect of “reducing the risk for common cold infections by decreasing the susceptibility for common cold infections during the cold season by strengthening the body’s natural defences and improving the body’s immune defence against common cold viral infections during the cold season” was found by the Panel that a cause and effect relationship was not established between the consumption of the yeast product named Yestimun and the immune responses.

The product described in the request consists of (1,3)-(1,6)-β -Dglucans from brewer’s yeast cell wall (100 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Beta-glucans are polysaccharides consisting of a backbone of D-glucose subunits linked by (1,3)-β -glucosidic bonds with irregular β -(1,6)-linked glucosidic side chains of various length.

Health claims regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 []

Nutrition and health claims made on food are regulated by the regulation No 1924/2006. Health claims are prohibited unless they are authorised in accordance with this Regulation and included in the lists of authorised claims provided for in Articles 13 and 14 thereof. In particular, Article 13(5) of the Regulation lays down provisions for addition of claims, which are based on newly developed scientific evidence.
In fact there are studies which have found beta-glucans to reduce risk of several diseases.

Beta-glucans are considered biological response modifiers with immunomodulatory effects [5]

Beta-glucans are defined as glucose polymers linked together by a linear β 1-3 -glycosidic chain core. They are considered biological response modifiers with immunomodulatory effects. Anticancer properties were demonstrated in vitro. As adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, beta-glucans were associated with positive effect on patients survival and quality of life by stimulating the immune system.

Beta-glucans of mushroms stimulates the immune system and has anticarcinogenic properties [6]

The healing and properties of mushrooms have been known for thousands of years in the Eastern countries. Certain mushrooms and yeasts contain immunostimulating polysaccharides of the group of beta-glucans similar to beta glucans of cell wall of certain pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These substances increase host immune defense. The induction of cellular responses by mushroom and other beta-glucans is likely to involve their specific interaction with several cell surface receptors, as complement receptor 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18), lactosylceramide, selected scavenger receptors, and dectin-1 (betaGR). beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity which is addressed in the paper of Akramiene et al. 2007.

The immune response can be modulated by nutrients like beta-glucans of yeast, fungi, and bacteria, but also of cereals like oat and barley. Volman, Ramakers and Plat 2008 write that studies show that beta-glucans of fungi and yeast have immune enhancing properties, such as leukocyte activity protecting from infections. The authors suggest that dietary beta-glucans may increase resistance against infections. [7]

 

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- Food

Food, what is it?

Milk and dairy products

Milk and dairy products are an important source of proteins, calcium and vitamins.They are ideal baby food therefore is this product of great importance.
The production of milk is worldwide concentrating in very few big companies. This increases quality through modern know how destroying, however, the small decentralized factories.

The very big international dairy food producers

Enterprise Seat of Sales Mio
the Head US Dollar
1 Nestlé Ch 13.500
2 Kraft (Philip Morris) USA 8.000
3 Dairy Farmers of America USA 6.900
4 Danone F 5.800
5 Friesland Coberco Dairy Food NL 5.500
6 Besnier F 5.100
7 Snow Brand Milk Products J 5.000
8 Campina Melkunie/MKW NL 4.800
9 Bongrain F 4.600
10 Meji Milk Products J 4.000


Milk Calcium

Milk is a natural source of calcium. Unfortunately young people drink less milk and more carbonated drinks increasing a possible undersupply of calcium. The decline in use of dairy products along with the increase of osteosporosis has boosted the fortification of food and beverages with o calcium all over the world . Calcium sources are:

  • Calcium carbonater
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Calcium lactate
  • Calcium gluconate
  • Bone ash
  • Oyster
  • Eggshell calcium

But none of these sources have the same high bio availability as milk and their derivates.That is why milk should be carefully protected against pollution and diseases such as BSE.

Bio availability of calcium

One liter skim or full fat milk contains 1.200 mg calcium.About 30% of it is available to humans.
The availability of calcium depends largely of it being soluble.
Mineral water is a good source of calcium being present in soluble form.In dietary supplements the availability of calcium can be differ from case to case.
The bio availability of calcium in vegetables is smaller as from milk.
In milk calcium is linked with other components which avoid reactions as insoluble salts.

  • Lactose and citrate of milk help resorption.
  • Phytate and oxalate reduce resorption.
  • Roughage and fibres do not influence bio availability.
  • Even having a low bio availability fruits and vegetables represent an important factor in daily intake.
  • A low calcium status causes the organism to absorb better as it does under normal conditions.
  • Vitamin D and a normal intake of proteins promote a better bio availability.
  • Human male reabsorb more calcium as women do.
  • During Pregnancy and nursing calcium is reabsorb more easily.
  • As one gets older calcium resorption diminishes.
  • Diseases such as Morbus Chron and Colitis Ulcerosa slow down the resorption.
  • An undersupply of oestrogen causes low levels of calcium.

Daily intake of calcium :
Adults = 800 mg
Infants =1.200 mg
To keep bones strong magnesium as well as calcium and vitamin D are needed.
The ratio of calcium and magnesium is important.Too much calcium and two little magnesium makes blood more apt to clot, leading to heart attack.

The proper ratio is half as much magnesium as calcium.It is believed that old people get only one-fourth as much magnesium as calcium, specifically if they take calcium supplements.
An intake of 1.200 milligrams of calcium per day demands 600 mg of magnesium
A separate supplement of 200 to 300 mg per day seems to be good.Dr. Seelig insists that the daily intake of magnesium should be about 500 milligrams .

Pollutants in milk and dairy products

Pesticides and aflatoxins in milk have their origin in imported animal feed.
The fat soluble pesticides like polychlorated hydrocarbons can contaminate easily milk, heavy metals are very seldom found in milk because they have low solubility.

All efforts should be made to avoid contamination because milk is used to feed children, dairy products such as cheese or yoghurt are consumed in large scale. Contagious diseases like BSE should therefore be avoided through rigorous epidemiological measures.

Pesticides such as insecticides, fungicides herbicides, hexachlorobenzene ( HCB ) and isomers of hexachloro cyclohexane ( HCH )are used in agriculture or are found on the fields.

Even with low concentration of pesticides in animal feed the milk may be heavily affected because liposoluble pesticides usually store in the body of animals and can be detected in the milk in high level.

Mycotoxines such as aflatoxin B1 may be present in ground peanuts or cotton seeds.The cows changes the aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1.
This is why animal feed should be protected against deterioration. Contaminated or spoiled food should not be given to animals.
Chlorated hydrocarbon such as Polychlorated biphenyl(PCB) were used in the past in transformers, refrigerators, in hydraulic oil and as all round chemicals. Its level in milk has decreased after the use of PCB has been reduced.…